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Wednesday, December 2, 2020
11:00 am – 2:30 pm CST
Thursday, December 3, 2020
11:00 am – 2:30 pm CST
Boundaries and Easements
Presented by Wendy Lathrop, PLS, CFM
Day One Wednesday, December 2, 2020 | 11:00 am – 2:30 pm CST (including a 15-min. break)
Locating Land Boundaries on Paper (And on the Ground)
What a deed tells us about real property interests and their locations – or doesn’t
Common kinds of land descriptions
• Metes and bounds
• Reference to a subdivision
• Reference to a tax parcel
• “Strip” descriptions
• 3-D descriptions (condominiums, split estates)
• Blanket easements
Reading a description to find evidence of location
The work involved in writing a description
Tying the paper deed to the ground:
What is evidence of a boundary?
Why paper and ground may not match
When the paper and the ground don’t match: The hierarchy of evidence in descriptions
Summary: elements of a good description
Physical Evidence and Boundaries
The difference between a corner and a monument
Retracement surveys versus new or independent surveys
Discrepancies between the written record and what is on the ground
• Types of discrepancies
• Causes of discrepancies
The hierarchy of evidence revisited
Day Two Thursday, December 3, 2020 | 11:00 am – 2:30 pm CST (including a 15-min. break)
Easements: Understanding Possessive Rights in Lands of Others
Distinctions between ownership and possession
Easements distinguished from other possessory rights
Types of easements and distinctions between them: appurtenant,
in gross, affirmative, negative and others
Methods of easement creation
Clues in documents to determine if interests are fee or easement
The effect of the Statute of Frauds on possessory rights
Methods of easement termination
What happens after termination?
Disputes: Boundaries, Shared Spaces, and Split Estates
Distinctions between trespass, adverse possession, and prescriptive rights
Maintaining adverse claims
• Statute of limitations
• Elements of a claim
“Lost grant” claims
Quiet title actions
Acquiescence, laches, estoppel, and equity
Less litigious approaches to settling land interest disputes
• Practical location and boundary line agreements
• Boundary line commissions
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See each course listing for the type and amount of each continuing education credit available.
Individual courses for engineers and land surveyors are not subject to pre-approval. HalfMoon
Education does not apply for landscape courses in FL, NC, and NJ or land surveyor courses in FL,
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Architects Continuing Education System (Regulations of the Commissioner
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Completion certificates will be awarded to participants who complete this event, respond to
prompts, and earn a passing score (80%) on the quiz that follows the presentation (multiple
President and Owner of Cadastral Consulting, LLC
Ms. Lathrop is licensed as a professional land surveyor in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, and as a professional planner in New Jersey. She holds a master’s degree in Environmental Policy, and has been involved in surveying since 1974 in projects ranging from construction to boundary to environmental land use disputes. Ms. Lathrop is also a certified floodplain manager through the Association of State Flood Plain Managers (ASFPM). A former adjunct instructor at Mercer County College in New Jersey, she has also taught as part of the team for the licensing exam review course at Drexel University in Pennsylvania. Ms. Lathrop has been teaching seminars for surveyors since 1986 and has been writing articles for surveyors since 1983. She is a contributing editor for The American Surveyor magazine, and she has four articles included in the American Bar Association’s text, Land Surveys: A Guide for Lawyers and Other Professionals. She and Stephen V. Estopinal, PLS, PE co–authored a book entitled Professional Surveyors and Real Property Descriptions: Composition, Construction, and Comprehension, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. in 2011. She is also on the faculty of GeoLearn, a web-based educational provider. Ms. Lathrop is a past president of the New Jersey Society of Professional Land Surveyors and of the National Society of Professional Surveyors, and has served on the Board of Directors for the American Association for Geodetic Surveying.